I’d never say it to their faces, but as a scrawny distance runner I have always liked viewing muscle-bound decathletes run their remaining event, the one,five hundred meters. They make it glance virtually as tough as the pole vault would be for me. Of class, they really don’t essentially have to race in opposition to center-distance experts. In cycling, on the other hand, the sprinters, time-trialists, climbers, and all-arounders all compete in the exact same Grand Tours. Visualize, for case in point, if Usain Bolt experienced to complete the marathon within just a particular time limit in get to begin the one hundred-meter remaining the next working day. What would that choose?

A pair of new research in the International Journal of Sports activities Physiology and Efficiency offers a distinctive glance at power information gathered by retired German sprinter Marcel Kittel, who above the class of his occupation received 14 Tour de France phases. Line that up next to a identical study printed past calendar year displaying the power information of Dutch rider Tom Dumoulin, an all-arounder who has received the Giro D’Italia and placed 2nd in general in the Tour de France, and you have a distinctive window into the physiological requires of a Grand Tour from two extremely unique perspectives.

All a few research were being led by Teun Van Erp, who labored with each Kittel and Dumoulin as a sports scientist when they were being racing with what’s at the moment acknowledged as Team DSM (formerly Team Sunweb and Team Shimano, between other names). He’s now a postdoc at Stellenbosch College in South Africa. I have written about his investigate with the Team DSM cyclists a few occasions beforehand: he and his colleagues found that subjective steps like perceived effort look to be as great as substantial-tech steps like power meters for checking coaching load, and in yet another study when compared racing information from their men’s and women’s crew. 

Just one way of quantifying the requires of a Grand Tour is the time a rider spends in each individual of their 5 unique power zones, which are based mostly on their purposeful threshold power. Here’s what that looked like for Dumoulin, an all-close to rider who is significantly great at time trials and climbing, above the class of 4 unique Grand Tours: 

tour de france
(Illustration: Medicine & Science in Sports activities & Training)

These are races that include two,two hundred to two,five hundred miles in 85 to 95 hours above the class of a few months, so it is not surprising that about 80 % of the time is expended in the three low-intensity zones. The race is received and dropped in comparatively limited durations of time, significantly on mountain climbs that typically choose 20 to thirty minutes.

That’s the information for Dumoulin, a person who weighs about a hundred and fifty lbs and has to be competitive in flat phases, mountain phases, and time trials in get to be in the hunt for the in general title. But what about Kittel, who weighs just less than two hundred lbs, a lot of it in the sort of thigh muscle? He wants that muscle to uncork substantial power in ending sprints at the end of flat phases, but the mother nature of the Grand Tour indicates he also has to lug that muscle above the mountain passes—and however complete within just a cutoff that ranges from about 7 to 22 % at the rear of the successful time.

At initially look, Kittel’s information looks quite identical. Here’s the exact same graphs for 4 editions of the Tour de France:

tour de france
(Illustration: International Journal of Sports activities Physiology and Efficiency)

But Kittel is essentially shelling out twenty five to thirty % of his time in the best two zones, when compared to 20 % for Dumoulin. “What surprised me the most was how a lot heavier a Grand Tour was for Marcel when compared to Dumoulin,” Van Erp explained to me in an e-mail. “Further, he has to expend an exceptionally substantial amount of time in z4 and z5 on the mountains located in the initially aspect of the race to be able to continue to be in the grupetto [i.e. the primary pack of non-climbers who drop at the rear of through a mountain phase].”

In the 2017 Tour, Kittel received 5 phases, such as the tenth and eleventh. In the twelfth phase, which highlighted a few major climbs, he finished a hundred and seventieth, far more than 34 minutes at the rear of the phase winner. He’s like the decathlete struggling by way of a one,five hundred, and you might imagine he’s lollygagging, saving up his vitality for the next sprint phase. But here’s the exact same information broken down by unique kinds of phase: flat, semi-mountainous, mountainous, and time trial. Choose a glance at how tough he’s working on those mountain phases!

tour de france
(Illustration: International Journal of Sports activities Physiology and Efficiency)

(The time trials are way shorter, frequently significantly less than 50 percent an hour, so are ridden at a a lot increased intensity.)

Just one way of evaluating physiology between unique kinds of riders is to glance at power output (which is commonly measured by a power meter that detects how tough you’re urgent on the pedals) divided by excess weight. The far more you weigh, the higher the power you have to have to be able to sustain, unique for uphill climbs in which other aspects like aerodynamics really don’t make any difference as a lot. Dumoulin’s purposeful threshold power ranged in between 5.eight and 6. watts for each kilogram in the a long time included by the study Kittel, working in opposition to a a lot more substantial excess weight, was 4.9 W/kg. The latter selection, Van Erp argues, is almost certainly the bare minimal important to complete a Grand Tour with out missing any cutoffs.

The 2nd paper on Kittel’s information will take a deep dive into sprint methods through two durations of his occupation: with Team Shimano in 2013-2014, and with Team Quick-Phase in 2016-2017. These sprints are very choreographed, relying on a series of domestiques to guide the sprinter into posture for a prospective win at the extremely end of the race.

With Shimano, Kittel’s power output tended to be increased in between ten minutes and thirty seconds from the complete, resulting in a better posture as the sprint started out. With Quick-Phase, he didn’t perform as tough in the guide-up to the sprint and experienced even worse positioning as a final result, but was able to accelerate more durable commencing with thirty seconds remaining. Kittel was great adequate to win sprints with possibly technique, but that may possibly not be genuine for most sprinters, Van Erp suggests. It is a great point to recall: the ending sprint is always unforgettable, but the race is frequently received or dropped in the fight for great posture ahead of the genuine sprint starts.

Just one of the neat points in cycling is all the subplots taking place on any provided working day of a Grand Tour. Some riders are seeking to win the phase other people are seeking to move up the in general rankings other people are seeking to choose up details by successful climbs or intermediate primes. It turns out that there is still yet another layer of drama going on at the back of the pack, as the sprinters try out to stay clear of elimination—and the physiology suggests that, by some steps, they are working even more durable than the leaders. When the Grand Tours resume this summer time, here’s hoping for some great display screen time for the grupetto.


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Direct Picture: Stuart Franklin/Getty

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